It creates an awkward perspective when used for centering purposes. Azimuthal/Zenithal/Planar Projections: Pros: These maps are useful for navigation if the map-reader knows how. Planar's products represent best-in-class image performance with solutions tailored to the unique needs of each application. Although the distortions can become bothersome from a viewer perspective, the maps that don’t focus on the poles tend to look at the angle of direction more than an accurate view of the distance. The calculation of angles makes it simpler to determine impact zones for traveling phenomenon in a manner that’s similar to how operators of our radial communications system use it to calculate antenna angles. Cylindrical maps have a lot of distortion towards [..] Source: enchantedlearning.com: 2: 5 1. planar projection. Since the circumference of the planet is about 40,000 kilometers, the maximum distance this approach can use is about 20,0000 kilometers. This type of projection is usually tangent to the globe at one point but may be secant also. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Parallels of latitude are concentric circles centered on the pole, and meridians are straight lines that intersect with their true angles of orientation at the pole. You can never represent the Earth in its totality, even with a non-perspective approach, without presenting the final map with distortions of some type. When using the azimuthal projection, the distortions will continue to increase as the distance between the plotted object gets further away. All projections introduce errors. Learning objectives • After this course you will be able to • Understand why we use projections • Know the advantages and disadvantages of projections • Choose the right projection for your purpose • Understand the difference between on-the-fly projection and the projection of layers The latter allows one to see the entire planet but through the lens of angular distortions. The orthographic projection views the earth from an infinite point, as if from deep space. 1.Cylindrical projection • Wrap a sheet of paper around the globe in the form of a cylinder, transfer the geographic features of the globe on to it. What does Planar projection mean? 8. 3. The stereographic projection is the only known perspective projection that’s also conformal. The shape of the Earth is represented as a sphere. If the relative area is important in some way, then an equal-area or locally-centered azimuthal projection is appropriate since distortion of the shape is minimal near the center and extreme at the margins. Below are two different PCS: Hawaii Albers Equal Area Conic and Canada Albers Equal Area Conic. Azimuthal projections are classified in part by the focus and, if applicable, by the perspective point. That makes it a useful method of charting a specific location in its relation to another point of reference. They both use the same projection but different projection parameters. There is no "best" projection. The Peters projection experiences severe distortion issues at each of the poles when displayed on the map. The biggest disadvantage of the technique is that it only works from one direction and breaks when the surface we’re drawing isn’t oriented towards the direction we’re mapping from (up in the previous example). Advantages and Disadvantages Lines are scaled (foreshortened) but can find scaling factors Lines preserved but angles are not It creates a natural point of reference. All of the meridians, the lines of longitude, are straight in this image, with the distances from the poles represented correctly. A globe is a scaled down model of the Earth. One of the most useful variants of an azimuthal projection is called a linear cartogram. The point of contact may be the North Pole, the South Pole, a point on the equator, or any point in between. Projections and coordinate systems are a complicated topic in GIS, but they form the basis for how a GIS can store, analyze, and display spatial data. This projection remains useful in a variety of sizes. Only the central perspective remains accurate with this result. Summary I made a tutorial about planar mapping previously. Then unroll the sheet and lay it. Learn more about the gnomonic projection. 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