Laskaris (mittelgriechisch Θεόδωρος Βʹ Λάσκαρης; * 1221 in Nikaia; † August 1258 in Nymphaion) war byzantinischer Kaiser im Kaiserreich Nikaia von 1254 bis 1258. Historiography on his renowned reign is often based on two contemporary authors and philosophers, George Akropolites and George Pachymeres. Das Reich erlebte unter ihm eine kulturelle Blüte. By his wife Theodora Megali Komnena, who he married in 1254, Theodore II had the following children: By his Thessalian mistress Anna Loukaina, Theodore II had two illegitimate children: A plethora of contemporary primary sources have survived through the ages and reached the able hands of current historians. All these works are fantastical adventures into Theodore II’s troubled mindset and revolutionary political philosophy, revealing a man who is torn between his ample worldly desires and pangs of Christian self-consciousness, and is existentially plagued by a world he deems imperfect and inconstant. He was the son of Manuel Laskaris (b. c. 1140) and wife Ioanna Karatzaina (b. c. 1148). Born (griechisch Θεόδωρος Β Λάσκαρης; † August 1258) war byzantinischer Kaiser im Exil in Nikaia ab 1254. Predecessor 1208 oder schon 1207 in Nikaia wurde Georg, ebenso wie Alexios und Isaak Laskaris mit der hohen Hofwürde eines Sebastokrators Vizekaisers ausgezeichnet Komnenos Modern historians have found the Annals to be richer in its (highly controversial) account of the man Theodore II was before he became one of the best regarded Emperors in Roman history, especially in his early years in his struggle for the Emperorship, and against the Crusaders and Mongols (referred to as Latins and Scythians, in chronicles of the time). Vandenį besemiant, nutrūko viedro ląškaris Pkr. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Greek Θεόδωρος Β΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris) (1221/1222 – 18 August 1258) was Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258. – er litt unter Epilepsie und Depressionen – und sein früher Tod 1258 verhinderten, dass seine Fähigkeiten als Regent voll zur Entfaltung kamen. 1 Life 2 Family 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading Theodore II Doukas Laskaris … HRH Albert II's 21-Great Grandfather. NN Theodor I. Laskaris, Kaiser 1204–1222, ⚭ 1) Anna, Tochter des Kaisers Alexios III., ⚭ 2) Philippa, ⚭ 3) Marie de Courtenay . John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Greek: Θεόδωρος Δούκας Λάσκαρις, romanized: Theodōros Doukas Laskaris ; 1221/1222 – August 18, 1258) was Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258. Seine Lehrer waren Nikephoros Blemmydes und Georgios Akropolites. Theodor II. Eastern writes, from the Muslims in Cairo to the Mongols and beyond also offer rather unique descriptions of the Lion of Philomenion, enriching the historical debate and evidencing how much Theodore II Laskaris was significant not only for Rhomania, but also for the outer world, with word of his deeds and misdeeds reaching far-flung Ethiopia, India and even Cambulac. Außenpolitisch ist er vor allem durch zwei Feldzüge bekannt, in denen er Thrakien und Makedonien besetzte. He faced strong opposition from the great aristocratic families, with whom he dealt ruthlessly, ultimately depleting the power they had been accumulating ininterrutibly since the 10th century. Other, foreign, sources may prove just as interesting, although far less detailed. Theodor II. Unlike Akropolites, Pachymeres followed Theodore II’s campaigns in Bulgaria, and offers a privileged view into the Emperor in his second decade of constant warfare, as well as the campaign’s most detailed account. Theodore II Lascaris Born 1221 in Nicaea; died there August 1258. Meanwhile, beside the aforementioned accounts of the Bulgarian campaign and the Roman rule in Anatolia, Pachymeres’ History is more plentiful when it comes to Theodore II’s late reign, and a deeper and more complex description of the Byzantine and Roman societies and administration of the time. Laskaris (mittelgriechisch Θεόδωρος Βʹ Λάσκαρης; * 1221 in Nikaia; † August 1258 in Nymphaion) war byzantinischer Kaiser im Kaiserreich Nikaia von 1254 bis 1258. (Théodore II Lascaris empereur de Nicée) found: OCLC, 12/14/95 (hdgs. Das außenpolitische Hauptziel der Zeit, die Rückeroberung von Konstantinopel, wurde jedoch nicht erreicht. The next years were spent stabilizing the Asian borders through alliances with the Kingdom of Armenia and Syria and the Emirate of Nicaea. Through his effort and that of his chief minister's, George Mouzalon, the long process of rationalization of the Byzantine bureacracy began. Laskaris war seit 1241 Mit-Kaiser und Regent in Kleinasien. Sein minderjähriger Sohn Johannes IV. In spite of near incessant warfare, Theodore II was a prolific writer whose political philosophy was aimed at providing legitimacy and theoretical justification to his anti-aristocratic policies. HM George I's 14-Great Half-Uncle. John IV Laskaris Another family surnamed Laskaris appears in Thessalonica from c. 1180 on, but the relation with the imperial dynasty, if any, is unclear. In contrast with … Later, Akropolites gives us an invaluable account of court life at Constantinople, often compared to Constantine VII’s own De Ceremoniis, a glimpse into the inner workings of the Roman state and of Roman diplomacy with other peoples, importantly featuring Henry of Sicily, the Popes in Rome, Bohemond II of Antioch and the Mamelukes (“Persians,” in his account). His … Theodor II. Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρης; * 1223; † 18. Als Laskariden wird die Dynastie der byzantinischen Kaiser in Nikaia zwischen 1204 und 1258 aus der Familie Laskaris (Λάσκαρις) bezeichnet. Irene Laskarina ⚭ 2) Johannes III. A second Mongol invasion was defeated at the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1253, consolidating his rule. Issue Er wurde der Schwiegersohn des Kaisers Alexios III. Burial He was the only child of Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes and Empress Irene Laskarina. Laskaris (XV Jahrhundert) Theodor II. Theodore II Laskaris miniature (cropped).jpg 404 × 538; 93 KB Theodore II Laskaris miniature.jpg 441 × 572; 108 KB Theodore II Laskaris.jpg 355 × 600; 101 KB found: Satira del pedagogo, c1992: t.p. John of Serdica denounces Theodore II as a villainous, temperamental and brutal tyrant, both in his conquest of Bulgaria and in his policies regarding the old Roman (and Bulgarian) aristocracy. Maszn. Er gehörte der Dynastie der Laskariden an. Die mangelnde Gesundheit Theodors II. This book tells the extraordinary story of Theodore II Laskaris, an emperor who ruled over the Byzantine state of Nicaea established in Asia Minor after the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders in 1204. Theodore Laskaris was born to the Laskaris, a noble but not particularly renowned Byzantine family of Constantinople. Duk … Deutsch Wikipedia. This book tells the extraordinary story of Theodore II Laskaris, an emperor who ruled over the Byzantine state of Nicaea established in Asia Minor after the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders in 1204. 18 August 1222Palace of Boukoleon, Constantinople und zeichnete sich bei der Verteidigung Konstantinopels gegen die katholisch-lateinischen Kreuzritter während des Vierten Kreuzzuges von 1203 bis 1204 aus. Sie starb zwischen 1249 und 1254. From his grandmother side, Theodore III was direct descendant of pretender-Emperor Theodore II Laskaris, who fought in Nicean Civil War. Admittedly, although Akropolites makes it a point to state that a historian’s impartiality and objectivity ought to be essential for the truthful construction of knowledge, the once Grand Logothete often aggrandizes events surrounding himself and is perhaps too favorable on the aristocracy, with figures such as Andronikos II Palaiologos, Manuel Megas Komnenos and Romanos Melissenos featuring prominently under a positive light (Akropolites’ and Theodore II’s contradictory views on the aristocracy would remain one of the focal points of tension in their relationship, until the end). 3 November 1245 – 1 December 1278 (33 years) 25 December 1249 His seven volume Explanation of the World is considered a political science classic and one of the field's inaugurating works. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Er folgte 1254 als schwerer Epileptiker seinem Vater auf dem Thron und war ein bedeutender Philosoph und Schriftsteller. He received the title of despot before 1203, demonstrating his … Er ist vor allem durch zwei brillante Feldzüge bekannt, mit denen er den Bulgaren 1255–1256 Thrakien abnahm. Maria Doukaina Laskarina, who married Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas of Epirus. Innenpolitisch förderte Theodor Bildung und Wissenschaft. Theodore II Laskaris Label from public data source Wikidata; Sources. Pachymeres’ opinion of Akropolites is well known (“most learned, but neglectful in matters of conscience,” he writes), and it must be said that whilst the Grand Logothete concentrated his efforts on a history of Constantinople, Pachymeres took his time to write of the Emperor’s subjects not only in Bulgaria, but especially in Anatolia. Drawing support from the office-holding aristocracy, Theodore entered into conflict with the landed aristocracy. Louis XVII's 16-Great Grandfather. 1235 oo HELENE VON BULGARIEN, Tochter des Zaren Iwan II. On the other hand, Pachymeres’ History portrays Emperor Theodore II and his statecraft more generously, and has thus been favored both by traditional and revisionist authors. Theodore I Lascaris Born circa 1175; died early 1222 in Nicaea. Theodore II Laskaris’ contributions to Roman political thought, specifically the ideas and implications behind the seven-book Explanation of the World, are deserving of full attention elsewhere, and for now we will focus on the author behind the controversial work. Segiucizii aveau o armă în plus contra imperiului grecesc în persoana împăratului Alexios al III-lea (care, după o lungă ședere în partea europeană, se întorsese la curtea sultanului). 1235 het er d Dochder vom Zar Johannes II. Januar 2021 um 15:19 Uhr bearbeitet. HM Juan Carlos' 20-Great Grandfather. There, the Emperor is branded as the antichrist himself, an analogy the Emperor would certainly have found humorous, from what we may extrapolate. lą̃škaris sm. Although many give well-earned attention to the epic poem and historical source that is the Laskariad, the canon of 14th century Roman literature and often regarded as the most prominent cultural factor for the Empire’s Eastern expansionism, we must take it with a grain of salt in its heavily glorious and mystical description of Theodore II, written almost a hundred years after his passing. Mit der Eroberung Konstantinopels und der Errichtung des Lateinischen Kaiserreiches durch die Kreuzfahrer… Father 1222 Died: 1258. Dukas Vatatzes geboren. Over a thousand letters to his chief minister, George Mouzalon, have found their way to us (indeed, the first four volumes of the Explanation of the World are addressed to Mouzalon), as well as his extensive correspondence with Akropolites, Blemmydes, Karyanites, the governor of Albania Constantine Chabaron and Theodora of Antioch, among others. Om, och i sådana fall författarna , och Laskaris Kananos tillhörde denna ätt eller om släkerna senare tagit kejsarnas berömda namn är okänt. Ferner sind von ihm über 200 Briefe überliefert. As a consequence, he fell out of favor with the new regime and his chronicle would soon be outshined by other writings. Fortunately, a vast archive of correspondence has likewise survived to our time, exploring all aspects and years of Theodore II’s life and long reign. Laskaris A member of a prominent Byzantine family, Theodore became a son-in-law of Emperor Alexius III. Finally, modern historians have often permitted and even encouraged Theodore II Laskaris to speak for himself. Theodore Laskaris was a man of literary talent and keen intellect. Died Religion Laskaris (griechisch Θεόδωρος Β Λάσκαρης; * 1223; † August 1258) war byzantinischer Kaiser im Exil in Nikaia ab 1254. (1) Tr, Pšl, ląškarỹs (3b) J.Jabl kibiro ar katilo lankas, pasaitas: Atsikabino lą̃škaris, ir paleidau viedrą į šulinį Paį. Mosaic of Theodore II in the Hagia Sophia first Mongol invasion of the Byzantine Empire, https://arthurverse.fandom.com/wiki/Theodore_II_Laskaris?oldid=599. Founder of the Nicaean Empire. The early years of his reign were dominated by great instability and uncertainty as three distinct but interconnected conflicts engulfed his empire: the war against the Latins knights of the Seventh Crusade, the civil war against several pretenders to the throne and great aristocrats vying for independence, and the destructive first Mongol invasion of the Byzantine Empire. Reign Då han 1258 dog, lämnade han sin son Johannes IV Lascaris som kejsare under förmynderskap av Mikael VIII Palaiologos, vilken dock undanträngde Johannes från tronen. Theodore II Lascaris, (born November 1221—died August 16, 1258), Byzantine emperor of Nicaea who—though not as capable as his grandfather or his father, Theodore I and John III Vatatzes, respectively—was an able ruler, a good soldier, and a man of letters; he succeeded in holding together the prosperous state east of Constantinople bequeathed to him by his father. Theodor wurde 1221 als Sohn des Kaisers Johannes III. Dennes son, Theodor II kallades efter sin mor Laskaris. Personal details John III Doukas VatatzesAndronikos II Palaiologos (usurper) Der Aufstieg des oströmischen Reiches." Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 26. Undoubtedly the harshest account of Theodore II’s reign belongs to that disgruntled Bulgarian priest, outraged at the Emperor’s dissolution of the autocephalous Patriarchate of Ohrid, and with links to the aristocratic Tarchaneiotes family of Adrianople. Er bemühte sich, durch den Aufbau von Unterrichtsstätten die Bildung breiter Bevölkerungskreise zu heben. Dukas Batatzes, Kaiser 1222–1254 . Theodoros I. Laskaris (griechisch Θεόδωρος Α Λάσκαρης, * um 1174; 1222) war von 1205 (1205 ausgerufen, 1208 gekrönt) bis 1222 byzantinischer Kaiser aus dem Hause der Laskariden im Exil in Nikaia. Eastern Orthodox Born at Constantinople in 1241, George Pachymeres joined the Church at an early age, and eventually became a clerk at the Imperial Chancery. Emperor of the Romans Helena (illegitimate)John IVGeorge (illegitimate)SkantariosEireneEudoxiaSophia Whereas Akropolites sought to approximate himself with the contemporary Roman elite to raise his social standing (going as far as pushing the marriage of his daughter Anna to King Aimery IV of Jerusalem), a behavior that is said to have affected his records, Pachymeres was content with himself, writing that true nobility was born out of character, and not blood (a view shared with Theodore II). prince, emperor, and philosopher Theodore II Laskaris (1221/22-1258). Theodore Laskaris was a man of literary talent and keen intellect. Nonetheless, whereas Pachymeres’ chronicle starts only with the Lion Emperor, the Annals records the reigns of his two predecessors, Theodore I and John III, offering an invaluable source for the early Laskarid dynasty, and a continuation of Niketas Choniates’ chronicle about the Angelid Dynasty. At Constantinople, Theodore II set up a court of scholars and intellectuals and favored the rise of New Men. Theodor wurde 1221 als Sohn des Kaisers Johannes III. Lady Diana's 22-Great Grandfather. In accordance to modern historiography, we will also allow Theodore II Laskaris to be his own voice, only then to explore the Emperor who has enchanted millions since his lifetime, the purported founder of the Roman modern state, and delve into the man who he truly was. Dukas Vatatzes geboren. Most importantly, by comparing the two works, modern historians may take joy not only in their similarities, but especially in their differences, of which there are many. † Norwich John Julius: Band III Seite 218-248 ***** "Byzanz. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris (Greek: Θεόδωρος B' Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Theodōros II Doukas Laskaris, 18 August 1222 – 1 December 1278) was Byzantine emperor from 1245 to 1278. Theodoros Doukas Laskaris What are, then, the historiographical uses of Akropolites and Pachymeres? PM Churchill's 20-Great Grandfather. Coronation Furthermore, even as Akropolites distanced himself from the Emperor in the 1270’s and ceased to write altogether only a couple of years after Theodore II’s death, Pachymeres’ History remains the favored source for that decade and records events well into the reign of Theodore II’s successors, until his own death in 1313. Eirene Doukaina Laskarina, who married Constantine I of Bulgaria. Spouse As a consequence, historiography often considers him the first ruler of the long Byzantine 14th century, known as a time of deep political, social and cultural transformation and innovation, culminating in the Laskarid Renaissance. Seine mangelnde Gesundheit und sein… Theodore II received a scholarly education by Nicephorus Blemmydes and remained devoted to science and art throughout his life. Theodor — ist ein männlicher Vorname griechischen Ursprungs (Θεόδωρος). Although he was born to an obscure Byzantine aristocratic family, his mother was related to the imperial Komnenos clan. Full name However, in spite of Blemmydes’ unkind words about the Emperor’s heavy-handed policies, his records pale in comparison to John of Serdica’s, alternatively known as Ivan of Serdica. Write the second section of your page here. Anna was a daughter of Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina. 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